2G to 7G Internet Generations Limitations
Now talking about the limitations of 2G network receiver sensitivity in time division multiplexing systems is an issue, why this is an issue because, for example, if we are going to transmit 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1, so we could have this signal followed by zero one which could have a different amplitude one zero, which has the same amplitude. Today we will complete discussing 2G to 7G Internet Generations
But now the phase is further correct, so over here, the step has changed again to one-one. We have the phase change as well as the amplitude change, that is, so there are different levels by means of which we are transmitting a signal in the time domain, right so this is a time-driven plot you could also have a constellation diagram which is simply IQ precisely.
Therefore detecting all these different kinds of structures is an issue on the receiver side also, it is wrong for us to do data because 64 kilobits per second is not sufficient for video signals right, so we could access the audio data but not the video data right or the multimedia, and hence there was an up-gradation somewhere over here that is referred as 2.5 g, and this is general packet radio service GPRS and so the packet-based technology.
As I mentioned, between 2g and 3G, we had multimedia messages and internet browsing so you could call different people at the same time significantly speed improved from 64 kilobits per second to 144 kilobits per second right in short if you have a three-minute of mp3 file.
This would take six to nine minutes to download right so this brings us to the next generation which is the third generation 3G it was launched in around 2001 and its features include integrated high-quality audio-video and data so this is enabled from a group audio call in 2.5 g to video conference.
3g also you could have a mobile TV on your cell phone, and you could easily access the internet this is iPhone 3, and over here, you can see the coverage, which is 3G, right, and this enabled broadband and IP technology code division multiple access was used that is different users who are accessing or communicating with the base station at all times and for all given spectrum but they were divided.
In terms of different codes or orthogonal codes, this also ensured better encryption. We again had horizontal handoff but not vertical the speed improved to 2 megabits per second from 144 kilobits per second in 2.5 g, so you could download 3 minutes of the duplicate mp3 file at an average time of less than 1 minute as compared to 6 to 9 minutes in 2.5 g.
But of course, it had the 3G had some limitations first and foremost, more base stations were required as compared to the 2g network, so why do we need more base stations this is because the same constellation diagram that is IQ now has more symbols.
If it has more symbols, the receiver would find it difficult to distinguish between the symbols right between this symbol and this symbol, so the receiver will become more and more complicated hence you would need a shorter distance between a base station and a mobile station, so you would need more densification.
More base stations so this is going to increase the capital and operational expenditure capital expenditure is simply that you are going to install new sights and a new base transceiver station, and the cost for that and the operational expenditure is the cost of maintaining those sights right operation and maintenance of those fights so also at the time.
In 2001 the 3G phones were quite expensive as compared to the per capita income, and they needed high bandwidth requirements and a high-quality video experience with high latency, right so by this, what we mean is first, what is latency? Latency is a delay, so if you are requesting a service.
How fast you can get that service this will be dependent on the latency, right so, if you are downloading a high-quality video, there will be some delays that are if you click on a video, it will be buffered for a long time, right before the video plays so based on these shortcomings.
Beginning of 4G Network | when 4G Network was introduced for the first time in the world? | Which country gets 4g Network First?
In 2010 we had the fourth generation, so we had a long-term evolution of LTE. It’s another version, or was it a version called LTE advanced right? It was first all packet-switched technology. Note that the long-term evolution of this LTE conventional LTE is not 4G. It is often referred to as 3.9 G because it was not strictly following the protocols of 4G.
Still, LTE advanced is the prime example of 4G. This is the iPhone 13, which can be used to access 4G technology. The central theme of 4G is basically multimedia anytime, anywhere, right? Hence, you have Mobile TV, online gaming, and cloud computing, so all of these features are enabled in the 4th generation, right, so anything, anywhere.
So it is using orthogonal frequency-division multiple access for the downlink and single carrier frequency division multiple access for the uplink, right so it is operating at two different bands in the downlink and uplink, so it is a half-duplex system it is not using a simple a given spectrum for both uplink and downlink note that downlink is the communication between base station to the user if the base station is transmitting a data to a user, so that is the downlink.
But if you are uploading data to the network right so, uploading data from a mobile station to the network is called uplink 4g was the first of its kind in terms of horizontal and vertical handoff right so it is able to not only hand over between different base stations.
But also across third technologies that are 4g to a broadband Wi-Fi router, this cell phone has an assist-enabled feature which would use both the broadband as well as the cellular technology together. It would download a big file if needed, right, so there was a hundredfold increase from two megabits per second to 200 megabits per second in 4G.
This means that if you have 60 minutes of HD video right so, this would take roughly six minutes to download right in 2.5 g three minutes of audio was taking roughly 6 minutes, now 60 minutes of HD video file would be taking 6 minutes, right so what are the limitations of 4G so why do we need all these technologies the first and foremost is the emerging Internet of Things right everything is connected in the Internet of Things at least.
It is supposed to be like that; hence, there’s massive connectivity, so this 4G gives us a reasonable data rate. Still, it cannot enable many devices to be connected to a network right, so this has the limitation that not many devices can be connected to a 4G network.
We cannot accommodate massive antennas in the base station while. 4G has multiple antennas, but it does not have a massive and in structure, the use of a massive antenna structure, as we will see in the 5 G setup, gives us some relaxation in terms of channel State Information we could direct beams towards a given user more reliably right.
The communication is actually greener also, the delay or the latency for augmented reality or virtual reality games and healthcare applications is relatively high, so we cannot rely on healthcare services based on the current.
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