Difference between GSM and CDMA?
Hi, I’m Sourav Khanna. Today we’re going to be discussing GSM and CDMA when connections, then we’re going to move on to why max when connections and we’re going to conclude with satellite wide-area network connections. There’s a fair amount of information to cover. So let’s go ahead and begin this session. And of course, I’m going, to begin with, the GSM and CDMA wide-area network connections. All cellular carriers use one of two methods for connecting devices to their networks, and those methods are not compatible. Currently, in the United States, T-Mobile uses the global system for mobile or GSM standard to connect their devices to their networks. Both sprint and Verizon use code division multiple access, also known as CVMA, as their method of connecting to networks. Those two standards are not compatible. The majority of the rest of the world utilizes
Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) or Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
GSM is the method for cellular network access. Let me speak briefly about cellular networking. Cellular networking involves using the cellular phone system for more than just phone calls. Cellular networking has been around for a while and it originally wasn’t known as this, but the first version of it is the first G or one g cellular and it was only capable of voice transmissions as improvements came along. We got to GE which is cellular with simple data transmission capabilities, as in text messaging, 2g edge offered some basic cellular networking connectivity and was a stopgap measure between 2g in third-generation cellular. 3g cellular is the beginning of cellular win networking, it’s giving way to 4g cellular, which is still an emerging technology. 4g currently consists of both LTE and y max.
High-Speed packet Access (HSPA) or Long Term Evolution
As a special mention, we need to talk about evolved high-speed Packet Access, which is HSPA. Plus, it was a stop-gap between 3g and 4g networking. It’s still available today. The current standard for HSPA plus allows for up to a maximum data rate of 84 megabits per second. Now it’s not quite as good as LTE, which is Long Term Evolution. LTE uses an all IP-based core with high data rates. Now LTE is compatible with both 3g Max, the current standard for LTE allows for up to 300 megabits per second in download speeds, and up to 75 megabits per second in upload speeds. Now let me introduce you to why max when connections, why max stands for worldwide interoperability for microwave access. That’s a mouthful. That’s why we say y max. Y max was originally developed as a last-mile alternative to use when DSL or cable was not available. It can provide an alternative broadband connection to a fixed location. It uses microwave transmissions as an over-the-air method to transmit voice and data. It does require line of sight between relay stations, but why max can be used to cover significant geographic distances.
Also, many municipalities are exploring the use of y max as a means of providing reasonably priced broadband to their citizens without having to wire every household. Y max is often considered to be a type of 4g technology because it is compatible with LTE networks. But why Max is not compatible with third-generation cellular networks. It is time for us to conclude with the satellite when connections. Satellite Wang connections are a type of microwave satellite networking. It uses microwave transmissions as an over-the-air method of transmitting voice and data just like y MX, it can be an effective means of extending networks into places that are hard to reach. It does use microwave radio relay as the method of transmitting data through the atmosphere. Just like the white mat, it requires line of sight relay stations, but it can cover even more distances than y max. Why is that? That’s because it utilizes a satellite network. By the way, because of the distances that satellite transmissions can cover.
This can lead to latency problems, think about it, the signals got to go from a terrestrial location, up to the satellite, probably over to another satellite, and then down to another terrestrial station. That’s a significant amount of distance. And there’s going to be some lag. I just talked about the communication satellite there also known as comsats. These do form part of the microwave relay network. COMM sets can use a variety of orbits, including the millennia, geostationary low polar, or polar orbits. The low polar and polar orbits are used to boost microwave signals before sending the signal back to Earth. Now that concludes this session on wind technologies part two. I briefly talked about GSM and CDMA when connections, then I moved on to why max win connections and then we concluded with satellite wind connections.