What is the difference between 4G and 5G | Difference between 4G LTE vs 5G Network…..
4G network so based on these limitations we have the 5g networks and we are presently in 2020 and the 5g networks are being launched in 2019. It is not fully launched everywhere actually it’s very sparse at the time being it has been launched in some of the places in China Britain but not elsewhere the first cell phone technology that was launched by Samsung.
This is Samsung Galaxy S10 so this enables the excess of 5g network right this was launched in 2019 so it was the first of its kind at that time. The important features include the huge number of devices to be interconnected to the network so that is 10 raised to power 5 devices per kilometre square this is a big number right if you have these big numbers.
So you are not actually relying on your personal communication that is a base station to the cell phone but you also have other kinds of communication for example vehicles 2 X right vehicles to infrastructure, vehicles to vehicles, vehicles to pedestrian networks right body area networks, different kind of sensors which are relaying information washing machines refrigerators they are connected right so different and multiple technologies are basically connected under that theme of Internet of Things hence many new applications beyond personal communications.
Now, what are the requirements of a 5g Network definitely you need high throughput that is 60 minutes of HD which took around 6 minutes previously now it should take around 6 seconds to download the right 60 minutes of HD video in 6 seconds importantly the delay or the latency that is a round-trip delay that is from a user to a network say to another user and then back towards the original user so that is basically 1 millisecond.
This enables that textile internet and what is that, so previously we are visualizing the information in terms of HD video and listening to it so we’re using 2 receptors so in tactile internet we could have more sensory receptors that are also enabled and over here you can see there is a VR gear that the batsman is wearing so on other ends you can have also a bowler which is also wearing a VR gear so you could have an actual player 2 player match based on virtual reality and this is a very very beneficial feature specifically and God forbid if the pandemic situation continues and worsens.
So such kinds of applications are basically enabled by means of 5g technology and we also have energy efficiency since the beamforming or the waveforms are actually directed towards specific users and it is making small lobes right the key technologies in 5g include extreme densification and offloading so the network is very dense and we have small cells.
Macro base stations give service simultaneously the distance between the mobile user that is the cellphone and the access point which is a base station small or big right so that is actually quite small but the average distance is quite small and it is also giving us an option of offloading and for that offloading previously we were more concerned in conventional systems that if there are different users which are communicating with each other so we had control of their data as well as the control our telemetry.
But right now if the two users are communicating within a base station so they can directly communicate the data by means of the device to device communication but the network is going to basically control them and charge them if need be.
Another important technology is Massive MIMO and for that, you have a large antenna array at the base station right whereas you could have one or few antennas at the mobile stations so a number of antennas so if there are a number of antennas at the base station there’s a phenomenon which is called channel hardening and based on channel hardening the mobile station does not need to acquire the channel.
State Information right so it is quite beneficial and you could use low complexity algorithms to get the desired service more details for such are given over here right. And next is the millimetre wave spectrum so the millimetre wave spectrum is around 30 gigahertz and up to 300 gigahertz this spectrum is actually not used presently in communication systems and hence they this enables a big bandwidth or a big spectrum that can be utilized.
This is one of the key advantages or key technologies of the 5g networks but of course, this has a lot of limitations because you can see there’s is a nonlinear behaviour of the frequency band with respect to attenuation dB four decibels per kilometre right even though it is nonlinear.
But you could see that you have certain peaks of attenuation moreover the pattern is actually increasing as the frequency increases right so you have more attenuation so hence we have two different topologies one is for the line-of-sight base station directly in the line of sight with the mobile station.
Then we have non-line of sight so you do not have a line of sight with an excess point so you have no line of sight so we have to consider both lines of sight and non-line of sight communication in the millimetre wave spectrum so while the millimetre wave is from 30 gigahertz to 300 gigahertz.
The 5G technology is also operating at around sub 6 gigahertz bandwidth specifically at around 3.5 gigahertz which has not been used to a greater extent so while there is an advantage but at the same time it is challenging so what are the limitations huge capital and operational expenditure so this is one of the bottlenecks because of huge densification of network you would need a lot of capital expenditure you need to install and a lot of access points and you need to maintain and do operational expenditures that is operation and maintenance on those installations.
So we have to invest a lot in terms of infrastructure since most of the things are interconnected that including vehicles so security and encryption become even more important and it is yet to be fully regulated.
Moreover, it is yet to achieve the promise right so all the technologies that we have. They don’t give us this kind of throughput right that is 1,000 fold from the 4G network but note that we are over here and as we move forward with have more and more advancements eventually.
Hopefully, we will achieve the promise set forth by the regulator’s this is in accordance with 3.9 G which is LTE not achieving the 4G promise but at the same time LTE advanced achieved the 4G promise right so eventually and hopefully, it will achieve it right.
The big question have we covered most of the things so why are we moving towards the sixth generation networks and the reason for that sixth-generation network, first and foremost the research started in 2019 on 6G and why do we have this debate over here of the sixth generation network this is because the 5g wireless networks offer a substantial improvement over 4G yet demands of full connectivity.
That is the connection of all devices on the network is still lagging in 5g so we need better infrastructure to tackle the industrial revolution 4.0 right in this paper some of the key proposals related to sixth generation networks are proposed to right and including the interconnection of 10 power 7 devices per kilometre square in 6 G as compared to 10 power 5 devices per kilometre square in 5g.
The peak data rate of 1 terabit per second in 6 G as compared to 1 Gigabit per second in 5g is 1,000 fold increase in data rate and then unmanned mobility support of 1000 kilometres per hour in 6g as compared to 500 kilometres per hour in 5g but note that this is unmanned mobility not manned mobility.
For example, for the drones and autonomous aircraft, furthermore reliability of the connection and remote operation that is the reliability has increased 99.99999% in 6 G compared to 99.999% in 5g suppose there is a surgery going on in a remote location where you only have haptics and robotic arm.
Hence, you need to ensure that you do not lose connection while performing that kind of surgery right. Moreover, VR virtual reality games also need high reliability right. Hence, the healthcare systems and vehicle networks drone networks are suitable, so all these networks require a natural tea in terms of reliability.
Lastly, the latency or the delay is proposed to be 100 microseconds in this work in 6G as compared to 1 millisecond in 5g, so I’m not sure by this latency would mean, but maybe this visual can assist us right so.